Famous for its historical monuments, for the unique historical center in preserving structures of various ancient ages and especially for the intact 16th-century walls, it is a remarkable Italian art city. Officially of Roman origins, but on probable previous settlements, Lucca, city of merchants and weavers, maintained its autonomy as an independent state for several centuries until 1799 when the ancient Republic was abolished, following the French conquest by the Napoleonic troops , giving life to the Principality of Lucca and subsequently to the Bourbon Duchy of Lucca.
Tied closely to tourism, it also lives a lot thanks to the industry and to the lively medium-small businesses (important at a national level are the paper mills scattered throughout the province). In recent years, good quality wineries have developed, especially in the Montecarlo area (D.O.C.) and on the hills surrounding the city.